The three main causes of French revolution are as follows: 1. Although the constitution of 1793 had given all men in France a vote, in this constitution only people with a certain amount of property could vote. It was called the Conseil de Cinq-Cent (Council of Five Hundred). There were many reasons. Sorry, John McEnroe, but tennis has never been more badass. The Enlightenment began in western Europe in the mid-1600s and continued until the late 18th century. It is possible that up to 40,000 people died in prison or were killed during the Reign of Terror. The kings and emperors of many foreign countries were worried by the French Revolution. King Louis XVI of France yielded to the idea of a new constitution and to the sovereignty of the people but at the same time sent emissaries to the rulers of neighbouring countries seeking their help in restoring his power. With the Legislative Assembly in place, the problems did not go away. They had made lists of problems they wanted to fix called the Cahiers de Doléance. The French Revolution: A History, 1934 edition. The Convention had both Girondins and radical Jacobins. Hundreds of thousands of people from Vendée (Vendeans) were killed by the Revolutionary French army. Anyone who broke the Jacobins' laws, or was even suspected of breaking their laws or working against them, could be arrested and sent to the guillotine, most without a trial. At the time, the French people were fed up … In October 1789, after being attacked at the Palace of Versailles by a mob of 7,000 women, the King was convinced by Lafayette to move from Paris to the palace in Tuileries. Readers searching for a timeline with greater detail are advised to look at Colin Jones' "The Longman Companion to the French Revolution" which contains one … The French Revolution had general causes common to all the revolutions of the West at the end of the 18th century and particular causes that explain why it was by far the most violent and the most universally significant of these revolutions. The other nearly 98% of the population was in the Third Estate. The King and Queen were taken prisoner. The 18 Brumaire marks the end of the Republican part of the French Revolution when Napeleon Bonaparte took the reign. The revolution began in May 1789 with demands for change within the country. He also, in practice, granted freedom of the press, and France was flooded with pamphlets addressing the reconstruction of the state. Dressed as servants, the royal family left Paris. Ans. However, the members of the Third Estate were angry. He reappointed reform-minded Jacques Necker as the finance minister and promised to convene the Estates-General on May 5, 1789. The French Revolution: A History, annotated HTML text, based on the Project Gutenberg version. This group was in charge and was called the Directory. They had promised to keep working until they had a constitution and no constitution had been made. - The French government faced massive debts due to decades of lavish spending,expensive wars, and poor economic planning - By 1789, half the budget went to interest on national debt, 25% of people were unemployed - The extensive spending of royalty angered French citizens - By … The ideas of the Enlightenment were beginning to make the ordinary people want more power. He said that he would give the King and his family help and support in his camp at Montmédy. They were immediately divided over a fundamental issue: should they vote by head, giving the advantage to the Third Estate, or by estate, in which case the two privileged orders of the realm might outvote the third? Prisoners were taken from the prisons to “Madame Guillotine” (a nickname for the guillotine) in an open wooden cart called the tumbrel. Social Cause 3. Strikes were banned. Political Cause: During the eighteen the Century France was the centre of autocratic monarchy. Under the Constitution of 1791, France was a Constitutional Monarchy. For the first time, trials with juries were held. They put in new, radical laws including a new Republican Calendar with new months and new ten-day weeks. Mirabeau had been against this law, but he died on 2 April, and by the end of the year, the law was passed. From a general summary to chapter summaries to explanations of famous quotes, the SparkNotes The French Revolution (1789–1799) Study Guide has everything you need to ace quizzes, tests, and essays. This timeline is designed to accompany your reading on the French Revolution from pre-1789 to 1802. They also wanted votes in the Estates-General to be more fair. Even powerful people who had been involved in the Jacobin coup were executed. Robespierre believed that if people were afraid, the revolution would go better. If he did not, or if he created an army to attack France, he would no longer be king. He also had the power to choose ministers. On 20 April 1792, the Assembly voted to declare war on Austria (Holy Roman Empire). In France, the revolutionary events ended the July Monarchy and led to the creation of the French Second Republic. Counterrevolution, regicide, and the Reign of Terror, The Directory and revolutionary expansion, https://www.britannica.com/event/French-Revolution, U.S. Department of State - Office of the Historian - The United States and the French Revolution, French Revolution - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), French Revolution - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), Marie-Thérèse-Louise de Savoie-Carignan, princess de Lamballe, Honoré-Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand, prince de Bénévent, The growing popularity of the works of a number of intellectuals who argued for social reform, Crop failures in 1788 compounded existing economic restlessness, French participation in the American Revolution that drove the government to the brink of bankruptcy, Resentment among the bourgeoisie about being excluded from political power, The French monarchy, no longer seen as divinely ordained, was unable to adapt to the political and societal pressures being exerted on it, Widespread inequality between the rich and poor classes alongside growing dissatisfaction with the antiquated feudal system among the poor, Establishment of civil equality in the country (but not in the French colonies) and radical social change, The Reign of Terror, during which the Revolutionary government arrested 300,000 suspects, resulting in at least 25,000 deaths, The abolition of the monarchy and the deaths of King Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette, Wars with a number of other countries, including Austria, Prussia, and Great Britain. With Edward Herrmann, George Ivascu, Rodica Lazar, Tomi Cristin. Politically, the governmental structure of the Revolution moved from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy to a republic and finally to an oligarchy. This created instability as every new group of revolutionaries could claim it had as much right to impose its ideals as the group before. Now that the king was dead, the National Convention made a new republican constitution that began on 24 June. The National Assembly began to decide how it would be under the new constitution. People in the area of Vendée did not like the revolutionary government. The Reign of Terror lasted from the spring of 1793 to the spring of 1794. All males 25 years and older were allowed to vote for representatives of the National Convention, regardless of their class in … It proceeded in a back-and-forth process between revolutionary and reactionary forces. The French Revolution was a revolution in France from 1789 to 1799. This revolution is known also as the Revolution of 1789, the year when it reached its first climax. During the spring and summer of 1788, there was unrest among the populace in Paris, Grenoble, Dijon, Toulouse, Pau, and Rennes. The lower house, the parliament, had 500 members. Omissions? The war with Austria and Prussia was causing the state to have money problems. Those who were socially beneath them had very few rights, and most were also increasingly impoverished. This week we look at the Revolution of 1789 and its causes. Lasting from 1789 to 1799, it resulted, among other things, in overthrowing the monarchy in France. 5.2-5.3: The Rise of Britain After the 7 years war, Britain emerged as the most powerful country in the European empire. There were practically no exclusions from the voting; and the electors drew up cahiers de doléances, which listed their grievances and hopes. The Assembly began to divide into different political parties. The revolution ended when Napoleon Bonaparte took power in November 1799. France’s kings were replaced almost overnight by the most radical government the world had ever seen. The Revolution took shape in France when the controller general of finances, Charles-Alexandre de Calonne, arranged the summoning of an assembly of “notables” (prelates, great noblemen, and a few representatives of the bourgeoisie) in February 1787 to propose reforms designed to eliminate the budget deficit by increasing the taxation of the privileged classes. The focus will be on the Third Estate and the revolt of the bourgeoisie, the 'menu peuple' and the peasantry. Many radical left-wing leaders, including Danton and Desmoulins, ran away to England or hid in France. The First Estate was the Clergy (the church). Bastille Day is still a national holiday in France. In March, they rose up against the government in a revolt. The crowd, including the King and the royal family, took an oath of loyalty to “the nation, the law, and the king.” However, many nobles were unhappy with the revolution and were leaving the country. There were various reasons which brought about the Revolution. When the crowd kept throwing stones, Lafayette ordered them to fire at the people. The French Revolution (1789–1799) quizzes about important details and events in every section of the book. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Updates? The first part of the movie tells the story from 1789 until August 10, 1792 (when King Louis XVI lost all of his authority and was put in prison). The 1848 Revolution in the History of France, sometimes known as the February Revolution, was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe. The National Assembly began to make lots of changes. The revolution ended in … Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. What they don’t agree on is when the revolution came to an end. The revolution ended when Napoleon Bonaparte took power in November 1799. The philosophes—intellectuals whose writings inspired these arguments—were certainly influenced by 17th-century theorists such as René Descartes, Benedict de Spinoza and John Locke, but they came to very different conclusions about political, social, and economic matters. This included Honoré Mirabeau and Lafayette. (2) The French government was forced to increase taxes. By the afternoon, the people had broken into the Bastille and released the seven prisoners being held there. The revolutionaries were very angry and violent. In 1804, he became Emperor. Many members, especially the nobles, wanted a senate or a second upper house. The Legislative Assembly did not agree very well. First, the convention was the first government in France based on universal male suffrage. The first of the general causes was the social structure of the West. Following the overthrow of King Louis Philippe in February 1848, the elected government of the Second Republic ruled France. The revolution came to an end 1799 when a general named Napoleon overthrew the revolutionary government and established the French Consulate (with Napoleon as leader). The Assembly imprisoned Louis and his wife Marie Antoinette, and suspended the king from his duty. Most Enlightenment think… In June 1793, the Jacobins began to take power. They thought the king should be completely removed from the throne and the constitution. A day later, Robespierre and many of his supporters in the Paris Commune were sentenced to death by guillotine without any kind of trial. In September, things got worse. In May 1789, the Estates-General was called by King Louis in order to deal with the money problems of the country. On 10 August 1792, the members of a revolutionary group called the Paris Commune attacked the Tuileries, where the King and Queen were living. Enlightenment thinkers and writers challenged existing knowledge and assumptions, seeking new information and a better understanding of humanity and the natural world. The French Revolution was a revolution in France from 1789 to 1799. King Louis XVI was executed in 1793. French Revolution - French Revolution - Events of 1789: The Estates-General met at Versailles on May 5, 1789. On 14 July 1790, a year since the storming of the Bastille, thousands of people gathered in the Champs de Mars to celebrate. To be sure, the two economies appear remarkably similar now, but France’s transition to an industrial economy was much more gradual. They began to go into prisons and kill people they thought were traitors to France. The revolutionary process started with open rebellion in the summer of 1789 — including the storming of the Bastille on July 14. The French Revolution, also known as the Revolution of 1789, was the revolutionary movement that shook France between 1787 and 1799 and reached its first climax in 1789. Representatives of the people from all three estates together made up the Estates-General. They planned to invade the Austrian Netherlands, but the revolution had made the army weak. Marie Antoinette, the Queen, was also executed on the sixteenth of October. The monarchy was no longer viewed as divinely ordained. The French Revolution took place throughout France. They could see that the American Revolution had created a country in which the people had power, instead of a king. The most famous of these was the Jacobin Club, which had left-wing ideas. This party sat on the right side. The storming of the Bastille is still honored in France as a national holiday. They elected 600 deputies for the Third Estate, 300 for the nobility, and 300 for the clergy. The result of the French Revolution was the end of the monarchy. Century old systems such as an absolute monarchy were removed, and it was the first step on the road to democracy. The French Revolution lasted 10 years from 1789 to 1799. The National Guard, led by Lafayette, was called in to control the crowd. Bonaparte was optimistic about bringing French revolutionary politics to Corsica. The French Revolution changed everything. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? The bourgeoisie—merchants, manufacturers, professionals—had gained financial power but were excluded from political power. The most significant innovation was ideological, making abstract rational principles the ground for revolution and radical social change. They did not like the rules about the church in the Civil Constitution of the Church (1790) and new taxes put in place in 1793. On 10 June 1789, they started the National Assembly. A right-wing club was the Club Monarchique. After that date, the Legislative Assembly would take over. The efforts made by Calonne’s successors to enforce fiscal reforms in spite of resistance by the privileged classes led to the so-called revolt of the “aristocratic bodies,” notably that of the parlements (the most important courts of justice), whose powers were curtailed by the edict of May 1788. The increasingly numerous and prosperous elite of wealthy commoners—merchants, manufacturers, and professionals, often called the bourgeoisie—aspired to political power in those countries where it did not already possess it. The upper house, the senate, had 250 members and was called the Conseil des Anciens (Council of Elders). The French Revolution was a revolution in France from 1789 to 1799. In the months that … The people were turning against King Louis XVI. The war lasted until 1796. The people were tired of radical changes and the unstable governments. Nobles could no longer pass their titles to their children. The Legislative Assembly held an emergency meeting. Several factors, such as the American Revolution influenced the French Revolution. Start studying French Revolution. “The Revolution of 1789 hit England like a thunderbolt. However, their escape was not well planned, and they were arrested at Varennes on the evening of June 21. It sought to completely change the relationship between the rulers and those they governed and to redefine the nature of political power. Michael R. Lynn is a Professor of History at Purdue University, North Central. A larger population created a greater demand for food and consumer goods. The Jacobins had taken power. On 14 July 1789, the people decided to attack the Bastille prison. The Second Estate was the Nobles, which also made up 1% of the population. The third party was the National Party which was centre or centre-left. The assembly refused to take responsibility for the reforms and suggested the calling of the Estates-General, which represented the clergy, the aristocracy, and the Third Estate (the commoners) and which had not met since 1614. The French Revolution is often considered to be one of the most significant events not only in the history of France and Europe, but also in the world. Although scholarly debate continues about the exact causes of the Revolution, the following reasons are commonly adduced: (1) the bourgeoisie resented its exclusion from political power and positions of honour; (2) the peasants were acutely aware of their situation and were less and less willing to support the anachronistic and burdensome feudal system; (3) the philosophes had been read more widely in France than anywhere else; (4) French participation in the American Revolution had driven the government to the brink of bankruptcy; (5) France was the most populous country in Europe, and crop failures in much of the country in 1788, coming on top of a long period of economic difficulties, compounded existing restlessness; and (6) the French monarchy, no longer seen as divinely ordained, was unable to adapt to the political and societal pressures that were being exerted on it. In the French Revolution, the Revolutionary commune, representing urban workers, tradespeople, and radical bourgeois, engineered ..... Click the lin… The French Revolution was a watershed event for the Catholic Church, not just in France but eventually across all of Europe. The French Revolution challenged political, social and cultural norms in European society. Soon, Paris was filled with riots and looting. The Third Estate thought this could be improved by giving members of the Estates-General a vote each. Monarchs tried to stop this reaction of the aristocracy, and both rulers and the privileged classes sought allies among the nonprivileged bourgeois and the peasants. The country was being invaded by the Prussian Army. The Brunswick Manifesto had made many people suspicious of the king. When did it take place? It proceeded in a back-and-forth process between revolutionary and reactionary forces. The Legislative Assembly had lost all its power. The Declaration of Independence Was A Template For The French. The discovery of new gold mines in Brazil had led to a general rise in prices throughout the West from about 1730, indicating a prosperous economic situation. Because so many of the members of the Assembly were left-wing, they did not like this. Louis XVI was put back on the throne and came to take his oath to it. Although most of us associate the guillotine with the violence and excesses of the French Revolution, it continued to be the method of execution in France until capital punishment was abolished in 1981. Even though the Third Estate had many more members than the other two Estates, each Estate only had one vote in the Estates-General. In France the revolutionary events ended the Orleans monarchy (1830–48) and led to the creation of the French Second Republic. They did not want revolutions in their own countries. Now that the terror was over, the National Convention started to make a new Constitution, called the Constitution of the Year III. In North America this backlash caused the American Revolution, which began with the refusal to pay a tax imposed by the king of Great Britain. The king tried to stop them by closing the Salle des États meeting room, but they met in an indoor tennis court instead. However, more people voted to keep having just one assembly. It made up 1% of the population. Since the First and Second Estates would not listen, The Third Estate decided to break away and start their own assembly where every member would get a vote. The French Revolution is usually dated in three phases or sections. This created instability as every new group of revolutionaries could claim it had as much right to impose its ideals as the group before. It sought to completely change the relationship between the rulers and those they governed and to redefine the nature of political power. They agreed to make the king a figurehead, with very little power. Even though only a third of the members were there and most of them were Jacobins, they suspended the King from duty. They thought he was plotting with the Prussian and Austrian rulers to invade France. Things were much more stable under the Directory than they had been before. However, the Directors were disliked by the people - especially the Jacobins, who wanted a republic, and the royalists, who wanted a new King. Many problems in France led up to the Revolution: Before the Revolution, France was divided into three Estates. However, it never came into power because of the trouble between the Jacobins and Girondins. They wanted to arrest many Girondin members of the National Convention. Louis XVI did not like the revolution, but did not want to get help from other countries or run away from France like the émigrés. They, and the Director-General of Finances, Jacques Necker, thought the Church and the Nobility ought to be taxed more. According to records, 16,594 people were executed with the guillotine. Despite his title, the Provost was no longer a merchant; in fact, most provosts were career public servants and administrators. 1. Many French were worried that the émigrés would cause trouble in foreign countries against France. King Louis XVI was executed in 1793. It was not only the nobility who died in the Reign of Terror. It is uncertain, however, whether revolution would have come without the added presence of a political crisis. The Jacobins attempted to eradicate Christianity in France. As mentioned in the first article in this series, The Bonapartes worked as a family, so he supported his older brother Joseph for political office. They pitted the French Republic against Great Britain, Austria andseveral other monarchies. ADVERTISEMENTS: Causes of French Revolution: Political, Social and Economic Causes! It would before long topple the absolute monarchy of Louis XVI, divest the nobility of their hereditary power, and completely undermine the … The French Revolution was a major event in the history of Western societies, and has had a profound effect on the world today. French Revolution, also called Revolution of 1789, revolutionary movement that shook France between 1787 and 1799 and reached its first climax there in 1789—hence the conventional term “Revolution of 1789,” denoting the end of the ancien régime in France and serving also to distinguish that event from the later French revolutions of 1830 and 1848. We will explore the tensions and conflicts that led to the crisis of the Old Regime. The Directors ignored elections that did not go the way they wanted. There were five directors chosen every year by the Conseil des Anciens from a list made up by the Conseil de Cinq-Cent. From about 1770, this trend slackened, and economic crises, provoking alarm and even revolt, became frequent. In 1791, a law was suggested to prevent noble émigrés from leaving the country. He wrote, “I engage to maintain it at home, to defend it from all attacks from abroad, and to cause its execution by all the means it places at my disposal.” The National Assembly decided that it would stop governing France on 29 September 1791. It was headed by the Prévôt des Marchands (‘Provost of Merchants’), the city’s de factomayor. French Revolution - French Revolution - Events of 1789: The Estates-General met at Versailles on May 5, 1789. A 1789 broadside reflecting the royal government's attempt to limit the sale of pamphlets on the eve of the French Revolution. The Declaration was taken very seriously among the revolutionaries. Arguments for social reform began to be advanced. The King used his veto to stop laws that would sentence émigrés to death. 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